Friday, March 6, 2009

အကူႀကိယာ ေလ့က်င့္ခန္း


အကူႀကိယာ ေလ့က်င့္ခန္း (၁)

  1. It may cost $100.
  2. Men should help with the housework.
  3. Tom would pay her.
  4. They could play the guitar.
  5. We’re seeing Mary tomorrow.
  6. She ought to keep it in the fridge.
  7. You can understand it.
  8. The police were watching the house.
  9. You can go with him.
  10. They’ve got a house.
  11. Your boss will be angry.
  12. Tom should pay the fine.
  13. They may come tonight.
  14. They were cleaning their shoes.
  15. He must write in French.
  16. You have read the instructions.
  17. These pearls are made by oysters.
  18. The ice was thick enough to walk on.
  19. This will take a long time.
  20. They may (permission) take the car.
  21. You’ve made a mistake.
  22. Ann would like a skiing holiday.
  23. We must do it at once.
  24. Tom could come.
  25. They were in a hurry.
  26. There is enough salt in it.
  27. You could see the sea from the house.
  28. Ann will be able to drive you.
  29. They had written to him.
  30. We must cook it in butter.
  31. It is freezing.
  32. She ought to accept the offer.
  33. There’ll be time for tea.
  34. I’m right.
  35. He may be at home.
  36. He used to live here.

အကူႀကိယာ ေလ့က်င့္ခန္း (၁)ရဲ႕ အေျဖမ်ား

1. It may cost $100.
It may (or mayn’t) cost $100.
Is it likely to cost $100? or
Do you think it will cost $ 100?

2. Men should help with the housework.
Men shouldn’t help with the housework.
Should men help with the house work?

3. Tom would pay her.
Tom wouldn’t pay her.
Would Tom pay her?

4. They could play the guitar.
They couldn’t play the guitar.
Could they play the guitar?

5. We’re seeing Mary tomorrow.
We aren’t seeing Mary tomorrow.
Are we seeing Mary tomorrow?

6. She ought to keep it in the fridge.
She oughtn’t to keep it in the fridge.
Ought she to keep it in the fridge?

7. You can understand it.
You can’t understand it.
Can you understand it?

8. The police were watching the house.
The police weren’t watching the
house.
Were the police watching the house?

9. You can go with him.
You can’t go with him.
Can you go with him?

10. They’ve got a house.
They haven’t got a house.
Have they got a house?

11. Your boss will be angry.
Your boss won’t be angry.
Will your boss be angry?

12. Tom should pay the fine.
Tom shouldn’t pay the fine.
Should Tom pay the fine?

13. They may come tonight.
They may not come tonight.
Do you think they will come tonight?
or
Are they likely to come tonight?

14. They were cleaning their shoes.
They weren’t cleaning the shoes.
Were they cleaning the shoes?

15. He must write in French.
He needn’t write in French?
Must he write in French? or
Will he have to write in French?

16. You have read the instructions.
You haven’t read the instructions.
Have you read the instructions?

17. These pearls are made by oysters.
These pearls aren’t made by oysters.
Are these pearls made by oysters?

18. The ice was thick enough to walk on.
The ice wasn’t thick enough to walk on.
Was the ice thick enough to walk on?

19. This will take a long time.
This won’t take a long time.
Will this take a long time?

20. They may (permission) take the car.
They mayn’t take the car.
May they take the car?

21. You’ve made a mistake.
You haven’t made a mistake.
Have you made a mistake?

22. Ann would like a skiing holiday.
Ann wouldn’t like a skiing holiday.
Would Ann like a skiing holiday?

23. We must do it at once.
We needn’t do it at once.
Must we do it at once? or
Do we have to do it at once?

24. Tom could come.
Tom couldn’t come.
Could Tom come?

25. They were in a hurry.
They weren’t in a hurry.
Were they in a hurry?

26. There is enough salt in it.
There isn’t enough salt in it.
Is there enough salt in it?

27. You could see the sea from the house.
You couldn’t see the sea from the house.
Could you see the sea from the house?

28. Ann will be able to drive you
Ann won’t be able to drive you.
Will Ann be able to drive you?

29. They had written to him.
They hadn’t written to him.
Had they written to him?

30. We must cook it in butter.
We needn’t cook it in butter.
Need we cook it in butter?

31. It is freezing.
It isn’t freezing.
Is it freezing?

32. She ought to accept the offer.
She oughtn’t to accept the offer.
Ought she to accept the offer?

33. There’ll be time for tea.
There won’t be time for tea.
Will there be time for tea?

34. I’m right.
I’m not (or I aren’t) right.
Am I right?

35. He may be at home.
He may not be at home.
Do you think he will be at home? or
Is he likely to be at home?

36. He used to live here.
He usedn’t to live here.
Used he to live here?


အကူႀကိယာ ေလ့က်င့္ခန္း ၂

(a) She doesn’t need a new umbrella.
(b) Doese she need a new umbrella?
ဆိုၿပီး ျဖစ္ေနပါလိမ့္မယ္။ ရမယ္ေနာ္...
ကဲ... လုပ္ၾကည့္လိုက္ၾကပါဦးစို႔။

Make the sentences
(a) negative and
(b) interrogative, using do/does/did.

  1. They have eggs for breakfast.
  2. He needs a new coat.
  3. He used to sell fruit.
  4. They have to work hard.
  5. She does the housework.
  6. He needs more money.
  7. He had a row with his boss.
  8. She had a heart attack.
  9. Her hair needed cutting.
  10. He does his homework after supper.
  11. She has a singing lesson every week.
  12. She had to make a speech.
  13. He does his best.
  14. He has to get up at six every day.
  15. The children have dinner at school.
  16. She dared him to climb it.
  17. You did it on purpose.
  18. He has his piano tuned regularly.
  19. He dares to say that!
  20. They had a good time.
  21. The drink did him good.
  22. My watch needs cleaning.
  23. He had an accident.
  24. You had your house painted.
  25. She used to make her own clothes.
  26. You do the exercises.
  27. He had difficulty (in) getting a job.
  28. 28.He dared to interrupt the president.


အကူႀကိယာ ေလ့က်င့္ခန္း ၂ ရဲ႕အေျဖမ်ား


1. They have eggs for breakfast.
The do not have eggs for breakfast.
Do they have eggs for breakfast?

2. He needs a new coat.
He does not need a new coat.
Does he need a new coat?

3. He used to sell fruit.
He did not use to sell fruit.
Did he use to sell fruit?

4. They have to work hard.
The do not have to work hard.
Do they have to work hard?

5. She does the housework.
She does not do the housework.
Does she do the housework?

6. He needs more money.
He does not need more money.
Does he need more money?

7. He had a row with his boss.
He did not have a row with his boss.
Did he have a row with his boss?

8. She had a heart attack.
She did not have a heart attack.
Did she have a heart attack?

9. Her hair needed cutting.
Her hair did not need cutting?
Did her hair need cutting?

10. He does his homework after supper.
He does not do his homework after supper.
Does he do his homework after supper?

11. She has a singing lesson every week.
She does not have a singing lesson every week.
Does she have a singing lesson every week?

12. She had to make a speech.
She did not have to make a speech.
Did she have to make a speech?

13. He does his best.
He does not do his best.
Does he do his best?

14. He has to get up at six every day.
He does not have to get up at six every day.
Does he have to get up at six every day?

15. The children have dinner at school.
The children do not have dinner at school.
Do the children have dinner at school?

16. She dared him to climb it.
She did not dare him to climb it.
Did she dare him to climb it?

17. You did it on purpose.
You did not do it on purpose.
Did you do it on purpose?

18. He has his piano tuned regularly.
He does not have his piano tuned regularly.
Does he have his piano tuned regularly?

19. He dares to say that!
He does not dare to say that!
Does he dare to say that?

20. They had a good time.
They did not have a good time.
Did they have a good time?

21. The drink did him good.
The drink did not do him good.
Did the drink do him good?

22. My watch needs cleaning.
My watch does not need cleaning.
Does my watch need cleaning?

23. He had an accident.
He did not have an accident?
Did he have an accident?

24. You had your house painted.
You did not have your house painted.
Did you have your house painted?

25. She used to make her own clothes.
She did not use to make her own clothes.
Did she used to make her own clothes?

26. You do the exercises.
You do not do the exercises.
Do you do the exercises?

27. He had difficulty (in) getting a job.
He did not have difficulty (in) getting a job.
Did he have difficulty (in) getting a job?

28. He dared to interrupt the president.
He did not dare to interrupt the president.
Did he dare to interrupt the president?


အကူႀကိယာ အေရာအေႏွာ အေျဖမ်ား


(Auxiliaries: Mixed) Fill each of the following gaps with a suitable auxiliary or auxiliary form.
သည္ေလ့က်င့္ခန္းကေတာ့ နည္းနည္းေလး ခက္ခ်င္လို႔ တစ္ေၾကာင္းခ်င္း အတတ္ႏိုင္ဆံုး ျပန္ရွင္းေပးပါ့မယ္။

1. Schoolboy to friend: I left my book at home. Can/Could I share yours?
(သည္၀ါက်မွာ ေက်ာင္းသား တစ္ေယာက္က သူငယ္ခ်င္းကို ေျပာတဲ့ စကားမို႔ သိပ္ယဥ္ ေက်းေနစရာ မလိုပါဘူး။ အခ်င္းခ်င္း ေျပာတဲ့ စကားမို႔ Can ကို သံုးႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ ဒါေပမယ့္ အခ်င္းခ်င္းေတာင္မွ ကိုယ့္ဘက္က ေဖ်ာင္း ေဖ်ာင္းဖ်ဖ်ေလး “မင့္စာအုပ္ကို အတူတူၾကည့္ပါ ရေစေနာ္” ဆိုတဲ့ ေလသံမ်ဳိးနဲ႔ ေျပာခ်င္တယ္ ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ Could ကို သံုးႏိုင္ပါတယ္။)

2. I’m taking swimming lessons. I hope to be able to swim by the end of the month.
သည္မွာေတာ့ able to ဟာ verb to ‘be’နဲ႔သာ အစဥ္တစ္စိုက္ တြဲဖက္ရတာမို႔ ဆီေလ်ာ္တဲ့ verb to ‘be’ ကို ထည့္ရမွာပါ။ သည္၀ါက်မွာ အဲဒီ be ရဲ႕ ေရွ႕မွာ to ခံေနတာမို႔ အခုလို သံုးလိုက္ရတာပါပဲ။)

3. You had better take off your wet shoes.
(ဒါကိုေတာ့ အေသသာ မွတ္ထားပါ။ Had better + V1 အတြဲကိုပါပဲ။ V1ရင္ ေကာင္းမယ္၊ သင့္တယ္လို႔ ေျပာတဲ့ အခါမွာ အဲသလို သံုးပါတယ္။ ေကာင္းတာ တစ္ခုကhad ျဖစ္ေနတဲ့ အတြက္had ေရွ႕က ဘယ္လို လူအမည္၊ ဘယ္လို ပုဂၢလိက နာမ္စား ျဖစ္ေနေန ေျပာင္းလဲစရာ မလို had လို႔သာ တစ္သမတ္တည္း သံုးသြားလို႔ ရတာပါပဲ။ I’d better take a taxi. She’d better ask for advice. စသျဖင့္ေပါ့။

4. I’m sorry I’m late. I had to wait ages for a bus.
(သည္မွာက ေနာက္က်တဲ့ အတြက္ ေတာင္းပန္စကား ေျပာတာပါ။ ေနာက္က်ရျခင္း အေၾကာင္းရင္းကို ေျပာတဲ့ အခါ ဘတ္စ္ကားကို ေသလုေအာင္ အၾကာႀကီး ေစာင့္ေနရလို႔ပါလို႔ အေၾကာင္းျပပါတယ္။ ဘတ္စ္ကား အၾကာႀကီး ေစာင့္ရတယ္ ဆိုတာ မလြဲမေသြ၊ မျဖစ္မေန၊ မလႊဲ သာလို႔ လုပ္ရတာ ျဖစ္ေနပါတယ္။ အဲဒါေၾကာင့္ have to ကို သံုးပါတယ္။ သို႔ေသာ္ အဲဒီ ဘတ္စ္ကား ေစာင့္တဲ့ အလုပ္ကို ေစာေစာက လုပ္ခဲ့ရတာ။ အခု မဟုတ္ေတာ့ဘူး။ ေစာင့္ၿပီးလို႔ လိုတဲ့ေနရာ ေရာက္လာလို႔ပဲ ခ်ိန္းထားတဲ့ သူကို ေတာင္းပန္ စကား ေျပာေနၿပီမို႔ အတိတ္ကာလ ျဖစ္သြားပါတယ္။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္had to လို႔ သံုးလိုက္တာပါပဲ။ သတိထား ေစခ်င္ပါတယ္။ ကြၽန္ေတာ္တို႔ ျမန္မာ စကားမွာက ကာလကို ထည့္ေျပာတဲ့ အက်င့္က မရိွဘူး။ အဲေတာ့ သည္လို ေနရာမ်ဳိးမွာ မွားတတ္ပါတယ္။)

5. Teacher: You must (obligation မျဖစ္မေန) read the play, but you needn’t (no obligation မျဖစ္မေန မဟုတ္) read the preface.
(ဒါကေတာ့ ရွင္းမယ္ ထင္ပါတယ္။ ကြက္လပ္ေတြရဲ႕ ေနာက္မွာ ဘယ္လို သံုးရမယ္ ဆိုတာကို ေလ့က်င့္ခန္း ေပးကတည္းက ထည့္ေရးထားၿပီးသားမို႔ ဘာေၾကာင့္ သည္အကူႀကိယာေတြ သံုးရတယ္ ဆိုတာ ေတာ္ေတာ္ေလး ရွင္းေနပါလိမ့္မယ္။)

6. I knew he was wrong but I didn’t dare (hadn’t the courage မရဲဘူးဆိုတဲ့ အဓိပၸာယ္) ) to tell him so.
(သည္တစ္ပုဒ္လည္း အတူတူပါပဲ။)

7. You’re getting fat. You ought/will have to cut down your beer drinking.
(မင္း ၀လာၿပီ၊ ဘီယာျဖတ္ဖို႔ ေကာင္းေနၿပီေနာ္ ဆိုတဲ့ ၀ါက်ပါ။ သည္ေနရာမွာ ေျပာသူက အမိန္႔အာဏာ သံုးၿပီး ျဖတ္ခိုင္းေနတာ မဟုတ္ဘူး။ ၀လာတယ္ ဆိုတဲ့ အေျခအေနအရ လုပ္သင့္ လုပ္ထိုက္တာကို အၾကံ ျပဳလိုက္တဲ့ စကားပါ။ ျဖတ္တာ မျဖတ္တာေတာ့ မင့္သေဘာပဲ၊ သို႔ေပမယ့္ ျဖတ္သင့္ တယ္ဆိုတဲ့ အဓိပၸာယ္နဲ႔ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ ought to သို႔မဟုတ္ will have to ကို သံုးလိုက္တာပါ။ ဘယ္ဟာသံုးသံုး၊ အဆင္ ေျပပါတယ္။)

8. He used to smoke very heavily. Now he hardly smokes at all.
(သည္မွာေတာ့ ဒုတိယ ၀ါက်ကို သတိ ထားရပါလိမ့္မယ္။ ဒုတိယ ၀ါက်က ပထမ၀ါက် အတြက္ အေျဖကို ေပးေနပါတယ္။“အခုေတာ့ သူ လံုးလံုး ေဆးလိပ္ မေသာက္သေလာက္ပဲ}လို႔ ဒုတိယ ၀ါက်က ဆိုပါတယ္။ သည္ေနရာ မွာလည္း hardly ကို သတိထား သင့္ပါတယ္။ သူ႕ရဲ႕ အနက္ အဓိပၸာယ္က not နဲ႔ ဆင္တာကို စြဲစြဲျမဲျမ ဲမွတ္သား ေစခ်င္ပါတယ္။ အဲေတာ့ကာ အရင္ကေတာ့ သူ ေဆးလိပ္ တအားေသာက္တဲ့ အက်င့္ ရိွခဲ့ဖူးတယ္လို႔ ေျပာရတာမို႔ သည္ေနရာမွာ used to ကို သံုးလိုက္ရတာပါ။ အတိတ္တုန္းက လုပ္ခဲ့တဲ့ အေလ့အထကို ေျပာတာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။)

9. The new motorway is to be opened this afternoon.
(ေလ့က်င့္ခန္း အေပး ေစာသြားပါတယ္။ ကြၽန္ေတာ့္ကို ခြင့္လႊတ္ၾကပါ။ သည္ကိစၥကို မရွင္းရေသးပါဘူး။ အခု အေျဖေပးရင္း ရွင္းေပးပါ့မယ္။ တင္ကူး စီစဥ္ထားတာကို ေျပာခ်င္တဲ့ အခါVerb to ‘be’ + to + V1 ကို သံုးၾကပါတယ္။I’m to go to see the doctor. ဆိုရင္ ဆရာ၀န္နဲ႔ ေတြ႕ဖို႔ ခ်ိန္းထားတယ္ ဆိုတဲ့ အနက္ ထြက္လာပါတယ္။They were to sit for the exams next month ဆိုရင္လည္း သူတို႔ေတြ ေနာက္လ စာေမးပြဲ ေျဖဖို႔ စီစဥ္ ထားတယ္ဆိုတဲ့ သေဘာပါ။ အခု ၀ါက်မွာေတာ့ ကေန႔ ေန႔ခင္းမွာ လမ္းသစ္ ဖြင့္မယ္လို႔ ေျပာတာပါ။ ဒါလည္း စီစဥ္ၿပီးသား ဆိုတဲ့ အနက္မ်ဳိးနဲ႔ ေျပာတာမို႔ is to be opened လို႔ သံုးလိုက္တာပါပဲ။ လမ္းက သူ႔ဘာသာ ထဖြင့္လို႔ မရ ပါဘူး။ လမ္းကို ဖြင့္ရမွာ၊ လူေတြက ဖြင့္ေပးရမွာမို႔ ကံေဟာ၀ါက် (PassiveVoice))နဲ႔ be opened လို႔ သံုးလိုက္တာပါပဲ။ ဒါကိုေတာ့ ေနာက္ပိုင္း Passive Voice အေၾကာင္း ေဆြးေႏြးတဲ့ အခါ က်ေတာ့မွ အေသးစိတ္ ထပ္ရွင္းေပးပါ့ မယ္။)

10. I’ve come out without any money. Could you possibly lend me Kyats 5,000?
(ငါ့မေတာ့ ပိုက္ဆံ ထည့္မလာခဲ့မိဘူး။ မင္းငါ့ကို ငါးေထာင္ေလာက္မ်ား ေခ်းႏိုင္မလားလို႔ ေျပာတာပါ။ ကိုယ္က လိုခ်င္တဲ့ သူမို႔ ေခ်ေခ်ငံငံ ေျပာ လိုက္တာလည္း ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ Could ကိုသံုးလိုက္တာပါ။)

11. Ann: Shall we meet at Maha Bandoola Garden?
(သည္မွာေတာ့ မဟာဗႏၶဳလ ပန္းျခံမွာ တို႔ဆံုၾကမလားလို႔ ေျပာလိုက္တာပါ။ အနာဂတ္ အတြက္ဆို Shall we? ၊ ဆိုတဲ့ အသံုးေလးကို အေသမွတ္ထား သင့္ပါတယ္။ သြားၾကမလား ဆိုရင္ Shall we go? ၊ ေပါ့ဗ်ာ။ ေန႔လယ္စာ အတူ စားၾက မလား ဆိုရင္ Shall we have lunch? ၊ ေပါ့ဗ်ာ။)

12. Tom: It would be better to meet at the the theatre. We might miss one another at Maha Bandoola Garden.
(ဒါက ေရွ႕က ၀ါက်နဲ႔ ခ်ိန္ထားတာပါ။ ႐ုပ္ရွင္ ႐ံုမွာပဲ ဆံုလိုက္ၾကရင္ ေကာင္းမယ္။ ပန္းျခံမွာ ဆိုရင္ လြဲခ်င္ လြဲေန ႏိုင္တယ္ေလလို႔ ေျပာတာပါ။ သည္မွာက်ေတာ့ အမွတ္စဥ္ သံုးကလို ့ had better နဲ႔ သံုးလို႔ မရဘူး။ မရဆို သူ႔အတြက္ ကတၱားက ပုဂၢလိက နာမ္စားျဖစ္တဲ့I, you, she, they etc. ေတြမွ မဟုတ္တာကိုး။ သည္မွာလည္း အဲသလို နာမ္စား မပါဘဲ V1 ရင္ ပို ေကာင္းမယ္လို႔ ေျပာခ်င္တဲ့ အခါ It would be better + V1 ကို သံုးရတယ္ လို႔ အေသ မွတ္ေပးၾကပါဦး။ ဒုတိယ ၀ါက်မွာေတာ့ ပန္းျခံမွာဆို လြဲခ်င္ လြဲသြား ႏိုင္တယ္၊ မလြဲခ်င္လည္း မလြဲဘူး ဆိုၿပီး မေရမရာေလး ေျပာတာမို႔ might ကို သံုးတာပါပဲ။)

13. Would you like to come yachting with me next weekend?
(လာမယ့္ စေန၊ တနဂၤေႏြက် မင္း ငါနဲ႔ ရြက္ေလွစီးဖို႔ လိုက္ခ်င္လားလို႔ ေမးတာပါ။ ဒါလည္း ေခ်ေခ်ငံငံေမးတာမို႔Would you like to? ၊ နဲ႔ သံုးလိုက္ တာပါ။ အေသ မွတ္ထားသင့္တဲ့ အတြဲပါပဲ။ ေကာ္ဖီ ေသာက္ခ်င္လားလို႔ ေမးခ်င္ရင္Would you like (to have) some coffee? ၊ သည္မွာ ေနခ်င္လား လို႔ ေမးခ်င္ရင္f Would you like to stay here? ၊ စသျဖင့္ လိုသလို သံုးသြားလို႔ ရပါတယ္။)

14. Yi Yi: I had to pay Kyats 500 for this little chap on the bus yesterday.
(သည္၀ါက်ကေတာ့ အေျခအေန ၾကည့္ၿပီးhad ကို ထည့္လိုက္ ရတာ ပါပဲ။ မေန႔က ဘတ္စ္ကားေပၚမွာ သည္ပုဂၢိဳလ္ေလးကို ငါးရာေတာင္ ေပးခဲ့ရတယ္ ဆိုတဲ့ ၀ါက်ပါ။ ႀကိဳတင္ စီစဥ္ၿပီး ေပးတာေတာ့ မျဖစ္ႏိုင္ပါဘူး။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ မလႊဲသာလို႔ မျဖစ္မေန ေပးခဲ့ရတဲ့ သေဘာ သက္ေရာက္ ေနတာမို႔ ့had to ကို သံုးလိုက္တာပါပဲ။ အမွတ္စဥ္ ၄ ၊ အမွတ္စဥ္ ၇ တို႔နဲ႔ ယွဥ္ၾကည့္ ေစခ်င္ပါတယ္။)

15. Mo Mo: My little boy’s under three so I don’have/don’t need (No obligation. Use present tense.မျဖစ္မေန မဟုတ္။
ပစၥဳပၸန္ကာလအျဖစ္သာ သံုးပါ။) ) to pay for him.
(ဒါကလည္း ရွင္းမယ္ ထင္ပါတယ္။ ကြက္လပ္ေတြရဲ႕ ေနာက္မွာ ဘယ္လို သံုးရမယ္ ဆိုတာကို ေလ့က်င့္ခန္း ေပးကတည္းက ထည့္ေရးထားၿပီး သားမို႔ ဘာေၾကာင့္ သည္အကူႀကိယာေတြ သံုးရတယ္ ဆိုတာ ေတာ္ေတာ္ေလး ရွင္းေနပါလိမ့္မယ္။)

16. The plane was to have landed (unfulfilled plan စီစဥ္သလို ျဖစ္မလာတာ) at Tada Oo, but it has been diverted to Nyaung-Oo.
(အမွတ္စဥ္ ၉ အတြက္ ရွင္းလင္းခ်က္ကို ျပန္ဖတ္ ၾကည့္ေတာ္မူၾကေစ လိုပါတယ္။)

17. You’ve spelt it wrong. There should/ought to be another ‘s’,
(စာလံုးေပါင္း မွားေနတယ္။ ေနာက္ထပ္ s တစ္လံုး ပါသင့္တယ္လို႔ ေျပာလိုက္တာပါ။ထပ္ရွင္းစရာ မလိုေတာ့ဘူး ထင္လို႔ မရွင္း ေတာ့ပါဘူး။ တစ္ခုပဲ ရိွတယ္။ should ေနာက္မွာ to မလိုက္ေပမယ့္ ought ကေတာ့ ought to လို႔ သာ သံုးရတာေလးကို သတိထား ေစခ်င္ပါ တယ္။)

18. You might/should have told me! (I’m disappointed that you didn’t tell me.
မင္းေျပာမျပလို႔ က်ဳပ္မွာ အႀကီးအက်ယ္ စိတ္ အေႏွာင့္အယွက္ ျဖစ္ရတယ္ ဆိုတဲ့ ေလသံပါေအာင္ ေျပာရမွာ။
(မင္းငါ့ကို ေျပာျပခဲ့ဖို႔ သင့္တယ္လို႔ မၾကည္ မသာ ေျပာလိုက္တာပါ။ အခုမွ သိရလို႔ ေဒါပြ သြားတဲ့ အသံ ပါေနဖို႔ လိုတယ္ေလ။ သည္လို အခါမွာ အဲသလို သံုးတယ္လို႔သာ အေသမွတ္ ေပးၾကပါဦး။)

19. We will have to take a taxi. Otherwise we’ll be late.
(အငွားကားနဲ႔ သြားမွျဖစ္ေတာ့မယ္။ မဟုတ္ ရင္ ေနာက္က်ေတာ့မွာဆိုတဲ့ စကားပါ။ မျဖစ္မေန ငွားရေတာ့မယ့္ သေဘာ ေဆာင္ေနပါတယ္။ ဒါေပမယ့္ အခု ခ်က္ခ်င္းႀကီး မဟုတ္ဘဲ အဖ်င္းဆံုး စကားဆံုးသြားတဲ့ အခါ (၀ါ) အနာဂတ္ကာ လက်မွ မျဖစ္မေန လုပ္ရေတာ့မွာမို႔ will have to ကို သံုးပါတယ္။)

20. At the holiday camp we used to get up at six and bathe in the river. Then we would come back and cook an enormous breakfast. (routine actions
ပံုမွန္ လုပ္ေနက် အလုပ္ေတြေနာ္။)

(အပန္းေျဖ စခန္းမွာတုန္းက ပံုမွန္ လုပ္ေနက်ေတြ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ဒါ့ေၾကာင့္ အခု မဟုတ္ေတာ့ ပါဘူး။ used to အတြက္ အမွတ္စဥ္ ၈ နဲ႔ တြဲၾကည့္ ေစလိုပါတယ္။ အပန္းေျဖ စခန္းတုန္းက မနက္ဆို ၆ နာရီ ထၿပီး ျမစ္ထဲမွာ ေရဆင္းခ်ဳိး ေနက်။ ၿပီးရင္ေတာ့ ျပန္လာၾကမွာ ျဖစ္ၿပီး မနက္စာ တစ္ပံုႀကီး ခ်က္ၾကတယ္လို႔ ေျပာတာပါ။ ဒုတိယ၀ါက်မွာ “ျပန္လာၾကမွာ” ဆိုတဲ့ အနာဂတ္ကို သံုးထားတာ ျဖစ္တယ္။ သို႔ေသာ္ အဲဒီ အနာဂတ္က အပန္းေျဖ စခန္းတုန္းက အနာဂတ္၊ အခုအတြက္ အနာဂတ္ မဟုတ္ေတာ့ဘူး။ အတိတ္တုန္းက အနာဂတ္ေပါ့။ အဲဒါေၾကာင့္မို႔ would လိုက္တာပါ။ အဂၤလိပ္ ဘာသာ စကားက ဇယား ႐ႈပ္တယ္ဆိုတာ အဲဒါပါပဲ။ အနာဂတ္ေတာင္မွ အတိတ္ရဲ႕ အနာဂတ္ ရိွေနသလို အတိတ္မွာလည္း အနာဂတ္ရဲ႕ အတိတ္ ရိွေနတတ္တာမ်ဳိးက ကာလ သံုးပါး စလံုးကို သည္လိုပဲ အမွတ္တမဲ့ သံုးျဖစ္ ေနတတ္တဲ့ ကြၽန္ေတာ္တို႔ ေရႊေတြ အတြက္ နားမလည္ ခ်င္စရာ ျဖစ္ေန တတ္ပါတယ္။ အဲဒီ ကာလ ကိစၥေတြကိုလည္း ေနာက္ပိုင္း က်ေတာ့မွ က်က်နန ရွင္းလင္း ေဆြးေႏြးႏိုင္ေအာင္ ႀကိဳး စားသြားပါမယ္။)

21. Tin Maung should know the address. (He probably knows.တင္ေမာင္ သိခ်င္ သိလိမ့္မယ္)
(တင္ေမာင္ သိခ်င္သိမယ္၊ တစ္နည္းေျပာရင္ တင္ေမာင္ သိသင့္တယ္၊ သိသင့္တာက တျခား၊ သိခ်င္မွလည္း သိမွာက တျခားပါ။ ဒါေၾကာင့္should ကို သံုးတာပါ။)

22. Tin Maung will know the address. (I’m sure that he knows. တင္ေမာင္ သိမယ္ဆိုတာ ေသခ်ာတယ္။)
(သည္မွာေတာ့ တင္ေမာင္သိတာ ေသခ်ာ ေနတယ္လို႔ ေျပာခ်င္တဲ့ အတြက္ ႐ိုး႐ိုး will ကို သံုးလိုက္ျပန္ပါတယ္။ ဂ႐ုစိုက္ ေလ့လာေစခ်င္ ပါတယ္။ အမွတ္စဥ္ ၂၀ တုန္းက ေျပာခဲ့တဲ့ အတိုင္းပဲ။ အဂၤလိပ္ ဘာသာစကားက ဇယား ႐ႈပ္ပါတယ္။ ကိုယ့္မိခင္ ဘာသာစကား မဟုတ္တဲ့ အတြက္ တခ်ဳိ႕ဟာေတြက နားလည္ရ ခက္ခ်င္ ခက္ေနႏိုင္တာမို႔ ေသခ်ာေလး အာ႐ံုစိုက္ၿပီး မွတ္ႏိုင္ပါမွ တန္ကာက်မွာပါ။)

23. I’ve lost my umbrella. I must have left it on the bus. (deduction ယူဆခ်က္)
(ဒါကိုလည္း အေသသာ မွတ္လုိက္ပါေတာ့ ဗ်ာ။)

24. Theatre regulations: At the end of the performance the public may (are permitted to ခြင့္ျပဳ သည္ဆိုတဲ့ အနက္နဲ႔)
leave by all exit doors. (ဒါေတာ့ ရွင္းမယ္ ထင္ပါတယ္။)

25. If I were you I’d get a taxi.
(ဒါကေတာ့ အေျခအေန အရ ေျပာတာပါ။ ငါသာ မင့္ေနရာမွာ ဆိုရင္ အငွားကား ငွားမိမယ္ ဆိုတာကို ေျပာတာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ေလာေလာဆယ္ ေတာ့ သည္တိုင္းပဲ မွတ္လိုက္ပါဦး။ သက္ဆိုင္ရာ အခန္းက်ေတာ့မွ ဒါကိုလည္း အေသးစိတ္ ေက်လည္ ေအာင္ ေဆြးေႏြး သြားပါမယ္။)

26. Did you paint it yourself or did you have it painted?
(သည္တစ္ပုဒ္မွာလည္း အမွတ္စဥ္ ၄ မွာ လိုပဲ ေတာင္းပန္စကား ဆိုရပါဦးမယ္။ ဇယား႐ႈပ္တဲ့ အဂၤလိပ္ ဘာသ စကားမွာ have + something + V3 ဆိုရင္ ကိုယ္တုိင္လုပ္တာ မဟုတ္ဘဲ တစ္ေယာက္ေယာက္က လုပ္ေပးတာကို ဆိုလိုတာပါ။ I have cut my hair. ဆိုရင္ ကြၽန္ေတာ့္ ဆံပင္ ညႇပ္ၿပီး ၿပီလို႔ ဆိုလိုတာ ျဖစ္ေပမယ့္ ကတ္သီးကတ္သတ္ ေျပာမယ္ဆို ကိုယ့္ဆံပင္ကို ကိုယ့္လက္နဲ႔ ကိုယ့္ဘာသာ ညႇပ္ရာ ေရာက္ပါတယ္။ သူမ်ားက ညႇပ္ေပး တာဆိုတဲ့ သေဘာနဲ႔ ေျပာခ်င္တယ္ ဆိုရင္ေတာ့I have had my hair cut. လို႔ ျဖစ္သြားပါလိမ့္မယ္။ အခု ၀ါက်မွာလည္း ေဆးကို ကိုယ္တိုင္ သုတ္တာလား၊

တစ္ေယာက္ေယာက္က သုတ္ေပး ခဲ့တာလားလို႔ ေမးတာျဖစ္တဲ့ အတြက္Did you have it painted? ၊ ျဖစ္ေနတာပါပဲ။ အဲသလို ့have + something + V3 ကို သံုးတဲ့အခါ ဆက္စပ္ရာ ကာလနဲ႔ သံုးလို႔ ရပါတယ္။ အခု၀ါက်မွာ အတိတ္ကာလနဲ႔ သံုးထားသလို ေရွ႕က ဆံပင္ညႇပ္တဲ့ ၀ါက်မွာက်ေတာ့ ပစၥဳပၸန္မွာ ၿပီးေျမာက္မႈျပ ကာလ (Present Perfect Tense) နဲ႔ သံုးထားတာ ေတြ႕ရပါလိမ့္မယ္။ အလားတူပဲ သူ႔ကားကို တစ္ေယာက္ေယာက္ကို ေဆးခိုင္း လိမ့္မယ္ဆိုတဲ့ အနာဂတ္ အတြက္ ဆိုရင္လည္းshe will have the car washed. လို႔ သံုးႏိုင္ပါတယ္။)

27. You oughtn’t (negative သံုးရမွာေနာ္) to be driving so fast. There’s a speed limit here.
(ေမာင္းရမယ့္မိုင္ႏႈန္း ကန္႔သတ္ခ်က္ ရိွေနတယ္။ သိပ္အျမန္ႀကီး မေမာင္းသင့္ဘူးလို႔ ေျပာတာပါ။ အမွတ္စဥ္ ၇ နဲ႔ ၁၇ တို႔နဲ႔ ယွဥ္ၿပီး ၾကည့္ေစခ်င္ ပါတယ္။)

28. You might (requestအေမတၱာရပ္ခံတဲ့ ေလသံ)H) get me some aspirin when you’re at the chemist’s.
(ေမတၱာရပ္ခံတဲ့ ေလသံလို႔ ဆိုထားၿပီး ျဖစ္တဲ့အတြက္ သည္လို သံုးတာကို သေဘာေပါက္မယ္လို႔ ယူဆပါတယ္။)
အားလံုးေတြးဆ ဆင္ျခင္ၾကည့္ႏိုင္ၾကပါေစ။

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